Thursday, 22 September 2016

94% New Foundland Rivers - Farmed Salmon Escapees Breeding with Wild Salmon

Sadly, it has to be pointed out that the interbreeding and thus changing genetics of wild populations of Atlantic salmon has been found in 17 of 18 studied rivers in New Foundland - 94%

The escapees are from the 750,000 farmed fish that have escaped from fish farms over the years.

This has been confirmed by DFO, the government body that is in a conflict of interest of protecting wild salmon stocks while at the same time promoting farmed salmon.

You can read the full account at the Atlantic Salmon Foundation's site, of at CBC: http://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/newfoundland-labrador/farmed-salmon-mating-with-wild-in-nl-dfo-study-1.3770864.

Here in BC, the same thing is happening: DFO in a conflict of interest. Canadians just want the government to simply put fish farms on land and solve the problem.

Meanwhile the biggest salmon farm operation in Atlantic Canada features Grieg Seafood wanting to put 11 farms, 7 million fish, in Placentia Bay. This does not make sense.

It is time to say once and for all that all science does is waste time. Fish farms call for it, and get a free ride while it is being carried out and then say more science is needed because it was not definitive, and so it is an endless cycle.

You can go to my post on the disease in BC: http://fishfarmnews.blogspot.ca/2016/08/key-document-fish-farm-diseases-in-bc.html.

And go see this video that was taken at a random farm in a random pen in BC: http://fishfarmnews.blogspot.ca/2016/09/marine-harvest-diseases-wild-herring.html. These are obviously diseased farmed fish. A reasonable person would conclude that if you can find such obvious disease in a randomly picked farm that disease must be endemic in BC fish farms.

Canadians do not want farmed fish killing wild salmon. There are 100,000 pages of science out there on the environmental damage caused by in-ocean fish farms. We don't need anymore science. We just need fish farms on land.

Google: fish farm environmental damage, and you will be reading all day, and into the night:  https://www.google.ca/search?q=fish+farm+environmental+damage&ie=utf-8&oe=utf-8&gws_rd=cr&ei=hRnkV-j_CNeqjwOP4YTwAw.

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Just in: Lawyer Owen Myers is taking the Grieg, NL, project to court: http://asf.ca/greig-aquaculture-taking-advantage-of-weak-regulations-says.html.

From the Atlantic Salmon post:

"Myers says beyond the legal reasons to file with the Supreme Court, there are a host of other reasons why the project should be halted.

He says there are so many obvious problems with the project he doesn't understand how it could have happened in the first place. The sterilized fish are already a problem in Norway and while Norway has strict regulations for sea-lice this province has none.

The date for the Supreme Court to hear Myers application is set for January 20.

Myers says it's pretty black and white. He says the Norwegian company sees the province as some sort of "banana republic" they can take advantage of and the government doesn't care as long as a few jobs are created and they get reelected."

Monday, 19 September 2016

Global Fish Reduction to Fishmeal and Fish Oil - Daniel Pauly

(Note the links at the bottom).

This paper allows attribution of actual fish farm landings, as in how much the Norwegian-style fish farm system has responsibility for collapsing world fish stocks to feed carnivore fish for first world mouths, rather than direct human consumption by third world mouths.
This means Marine Harvest, Cermaq and Grieg Seafood. 

Answer to come, but for now the abstract::
Globally, the production of fishmeal and fish oil(FMFO)has been reliant on dedicated fisheries since at least the 1950s. While these products formerly found diverse uses, they are now usedalmost entirely for livestock and aquaculture production (Tacon and Metian 2008). There has also been a growth in the practice of direct feeding of fish to aquaculture operations for various taxa (Funge-Smithet et al.2005).Both of these uses are for purposes other than direct human consumption (DHC) and have been criticized as wasteful and unethical (Naylor and Burke 2005;Tacon and Metian 2009b). On the other hand, the market possibility and complete use ofall fisheries landings for DHC has been contested (Wijkstr√∂m 2009,2010). However, this debate has also been marked by a lack of clarity around what fish are used for fishmeal and fish oilproduction and for direct feeding, outside of a few major species that have come to characterize the sector,such as the Peruvian anchoveta (Engraulis ringens). 
 Furthermore, as the fishmeal/oil sector is thought torepresent close to 1/3 of global capture
fisheries in recent years (Alderet al. 2008;Tacon and Metian 2009a), understanding its dynamics is important to guide future fisheries policy and fisheries research. We aim to characterize the role of non-DHC fisheries in global capture fisheries, including both reduction fisheries for fish meal and oil and fisheries for ‘trash fish’ (i.e., direct feed). Thus,
we provide a global coverage of reduction/feed fisheries for each fishing entity (i.e., fishing country or flag country) from 1950-2010, based on the reconstructed global catch database of the Sea Around Us (Pauly and Zeller 2016). This will enable us to analyze a sector of capture fisheries that is relatively poorly understood in its global extent and development, and permits the documentation of current trends within reduction fisheries. Additionally our focus on the full time period back to 1950 enables us to develop an understanding of
the use of fisheries landings almost since the beginning of post-WWII industrial fisheries. 

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The point is that the killing of 282 fish to feed one fish for human consumption in a vastly different consumption from human consumption of the 282 fish, and the industry, far from being able to claim the communications spin that they are 'saving dwindling stocks' by replacing them with farmed fish, is patently incorrect.

Account for the 282 dead fish, plus the salmonids killed by fish farms, some 50% of such fish in the area that fish farms operate, and the deficit is huge. For example, my estimate for the BC industry being that 14.4 billion fish are killed to feed one harvest of farmed fish in BC PLUS the 50% of wild fish they kill. (I will put the link from my site here shortly). 

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This is the NOFIMA report from Norway on the issue: https://www.nofima.no/filearchive/rapport-53-2011_5.pdf. More to come.

This is the Daniel Pauly document: http://www.seaaroundus.org/doc/publications/books-and-reports/2016/End_Use_Reconstruction_Report.pdf

Friday, 16 September 2016

Fish Farms Kill Billions of Fish, Updated Sept 22, 2016

(See notes at bottom. Adjusted stats to come.)

How many fish does the carnivore fish farm industry kill to feed their own fish? Plenty.

And like the sewage cost that took me a very long time to research and come up with a defensible estimate of $10.2 Billion in BC alone (that's what we absorb for them to use our ocean as a free, open sewer) I have spent many bleary-eyed days researching the literature for reliable forage fish stats.

Cutting to the chase, here's how bad the situation is:

Fish farms kill 282 fish to feed a single farmed salmon.
Fish farms kill 169.5 million fish to feed a single farm in BC.
Fish farms kill 14.4 Billion fish to bring one harvest of fish to market in BC.

These are staggering numbers and more than 96% of global fish stocks have problems from fish farms killing them for fish meal and fish oil. The only one of 20 left is Antarctic krill, and that is not even a fish -  3.8%. Urgent reform has been called for by the best report I used:

Reduction Fisheries: SFP Fisheries Sustainability Overview 2016. See: http://cmsdevelopment.sustainablefish.org.s3.amazonaws.com/2016/08/22/SFP_Reduction%20Fisheries_Sector_2016-fc08787e.pdf.

The major numbers you need to compute the number of fish killed to feed carnivore Atlantic salmon are:


1.Size of forage fish and number/kg                       88.2 gms, 11.3fish/kg
2.Kg of bait fish per kg farmed salmon                  5kg
3.No of kg before salmon harvest                          5kg
4.Number of fish per farm                                       600,000
5.Number of Farms in BC                                       85


And here is the equation for BC: (1kg/fish weight = fish/kg) X 5kg X 5kg X 600,000 X 85 =14.4 Billion dead fish.

If you leave out the number of farms, the number per farm is: 169.5 million dead fish.
If you leave out the number of fish per farm, the number per farmed fish is: 282 dead fish.


And they would like you to believe they are sustainable. I don't think so. Anyone who would like to follow the links, send me a comment as my notes have a good 15 links, to back up what I am saying.

How about Marine Harvest, Cermaq, Grieg Seafood? Come on, make my day. 

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Background, for keeners:

1. Percentage of forage fish killed, from Table 5 in the above reference, and average size computed from another dozen links:

Stock Fished                                                    Percent of Global Harvest               Weight in
                                                                                                                                 Grams
Peruvian anchovetta                                                                                                  
            Northern-central                                  22.1 
Chilean anchovetta
            Regions 111, 1V                                 .4
            Regions XV-1-11/Southern Peru        13.9% = 36.4% X 46.5g                   16.9
NE Atlantic Blue Whiting                              14.8     X 207.5g                               30.7    
NW African
European Pilchard, Southern Stock    3.6
European Pilchard, Central Stock      7.4 = 11% X 112g                             12.3
Chilean Araucanian Herring                           7.0 X 25g                                          17.5
Icelandic Capelin                                            6.6 X 20g                                          1.3
Chilean jack mackerel                                     5.3 X 23g                                          1.2
US Gulf menhaden                                         5.0 X 180g                                         9
Antarctic Krill                                                 3.8 X 1g                                            0
Total Average weight                                      89.9%                                               88.2g

And, number of fish per kg: 1000g/88.2g = 11.3 fish.

2. The commonly accepted number of kg of dead forage fish you need to feed a farmed salmon to put on 1 kg of weight is 5kg

3. Farmed salmon can be grown to harvest as large as 10kg, but I use the more common harvest weight of 5kg. This is a conservative figure.

4. Fish farms can be over a million farmed fish, but the more common average is 600,000 farm fish per farm. So, again, a conservative number.

5. Of 130 fish farms in BC, the average in operation is 85, again conservative. To put this in perspective, there are more than 1,000 in-ocean fish farms in Norway. Chile, the dirtiest country, is putting in another 100 in its southern region alone, more than the entire industry in BC. Sadly, they are now going to pollute Patagonia one of the last pristine nature areas in the world.

One more thing, fish farms like to say that fish trimmings are used in fish feed. Well, the global industry amounts to 1% of feed (2016), even though the IFFO said it was 25% (2009). See: http://www.thefishsite.com/articles/1288/production-consumption-of-fishmeal/. And the word 'trimmings' means, in English, guts and factory waste.

One more thing, the situation is even worse because Asian data is not included, including China that uses all of its own and buys more. They are still currently fishing off Peru and Chile the major areas in the world, but are taking the catch back to Asia, largely for prawns, as well as to China.

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Here is a new paper just in on world wide fisheries from The Sea Around Us. After I read it I will make adjustments to this post: http://www.seaaroundus.org/doc/publications/books-and-reports/2016/End_Use_Reconstruction_Report.pdf http://www.seaaroundus.org/doc/publications/books-and-reports/2016/End_Use_Reconstruction_Report.pdf.

Here is another paper just in, from NOFIMA, on fish feed constituents. Once I have read it, I'll add some comments to this post, now Sept 22: https://www.nofima.no/filearchive/rapport-53-2011_5.pdf.