Thursday, 16 March 2017

Versinia, Related to the Bubonic Plague, Brought to you by Fish Farms

Exhaustive research on fish farm diseases:

"Coincidentally, fish farming has expanded globally with an increase not only in absolute production (kilotonnes/year) but also in the number of fish species being cultured in both freshwater and marine systems. The increase in aquaculture operations world-wide has provided new opportunities for the transmission of aquatic viruses and the occurrence of viral diseases remains a significant limiting factor for aquaculture production and for the sustainability of biodiversity in the natural environment. Here we provide an overview of some of the significant viral pathogens affecting finfish species." 


Then there is this review:

Several members of the genus Yersinia cause human disease, including Yersinia enterocolitica, Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and, most notably, Yersinia pestis, the cause of bubonic plague. Yersinia ruckeri causes enteric redmouth disease
(ERM) of salmonids, which is associated with significant aquaculture losses worldwide ( Austin, Allen-Austin, 1985 ; Tobback et al, 2007). A single human case of infection with Y. ruckeri, of uncertain clinical significance, has been reported ( Farmer et al., 1985). Several other Yersinia spp. have been isolated from both fishes and humans, including Yersinia frederiksenii and Yersinia intermedia ( Sulakvelidze, 2000), but evidence of fish-borne zoonotic infections in this group is lacking." 


And another:
"Yersinia ruckeri is a salmonid pathogen with widespread distribution in cool-temperate waters including Australia and New Zealand, two isolated environments with recently developed salmonid farming industries. Phylogenetic comparison of 58 isolates from Australia, New Zealand, USA, Chile, Finland and China based on non-recombinant core genome SNPs revealed multiple deep-branching lineages, with a most recent common ancestor estimated at 18 500 years BP (12 355–24 757 95% HPD) and evidence of Australasian endemism." ... "Despite the European and North American origins of the Australasian salmonid stocks, the lineages of Y. ruckeri in Australia and New Zealand are distinct from those of the northern hemisphere, suggesting they are pre-existing ancient strains that have emerged and evolved with the introduction of susceptible hosts following European colonization."  


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